According to Abdel-Aal et al., Hidalgoetal., Brandolini et. al., Hejtmánková et al., einkorn is still underutilized wheat suitable for infants and production of special foods because of its high lutein content, protein and grated. The authors believe that einkorn can be used as a donor in breeding programs with common and durum wheat to obtain new genotypes with high content of carotenoids and grated having a synergistic antioxidant effect.
There have been studies of the flour and the dough as compared to those of durum and common wheat. Einkorn wheat flour has weak rheological and baking properties. It is characterized by a higher protein content, higher content of mineral components and relatively smaller particles of farinaceous of those wheats. It is rich in β-carotene and ash content of 0.65%. Prepared bread has low volume and crumb concise, with small and regular pores and deep yellow color and a very pleasant flavor. It is noted that the strength of the gluten is similar to that of common wheat, gluten itself but is more tacky and low Moisture Retention capability. The ratio gliadin: glutenin ratio is 2: 1 compared to 0.8: 1 for durum and common wheat.
Although the hardness of the grain shows different values, many of einkorn varieties have very soft texture (Corbellini at al., 1999). The hardness of the grain is very important feature and determine what consumption will be heading.
Einkorn is not suitable for making bread with yeast (D’Egidio et al., 1993). The quality of einkorn gluten determines its use for the production of biscuits, cakes and other pastries.
The ratio of gliadin and glutenin factions in einkorn is different from durum wheat. The ratio in rie is 2: 1, while in common wheat is 1: 1 (Frégeaz-Reid and Abdel-Aal, 2005). Nevertheless they are established varieties with better characteristics (pastries with a larger volume) (Borghi et al. 1996).
Einkorn flour not flush gluten and preparation of bread and pasta is the biggest challenge in the art of bread (Arendt & Bello, 2008).
After baking, derived bread has a bright yellow color and size similar to or better than the controls – wheat bread. It is noted that the biscuits produced from these specimens are thinner and with a larger diameter than the biscuit samples of common wheat.
In respect of taste it is considered that the bread of einkorn wheat inferior to that produced from spelt or from variety of emmer. There are conflicting views, namely that it superior in taste the bread from ordinary wheat (Fig. 5). Except for bread, einkorn was used by ancient civilizations for different dishes: soups, salads, casseroles and sauces, as well as animal feed.
Folk medicine recommends eating einkorn wheat in colitis, neuroses, spikes, and to increase the body’s resistance.
For 100 g energy value1580 KJ.
For 1kg: potassium 3960 mg, sodium 110 mg, magnesium 1320 mg, calcium 220 mg, phosphorus 4200 mg, 70.19 to 74.94% carbohydrates, 11.80% protein, 2.43 to 2.88% fat, fiber 7.65 to 10.7%, iron 26 mg, zinc 0,34 mg, vitamin B1 0,37 mg, vitamin B5 0,80 mg, vitamin PP 5,20 mg
Nutritional value of einkorn / Table:
|Calories from fat||22|
|Total fat||2,43 g|
|Total carbohydrates||70,19 g|