Food and beverages that are gluten-free or have low levels of gluten

There are many foods that do not contain gluten and can be eaten without restriction. They include rice, maize, various kinds of plants containing starch such as potatoes, beans, buckwheat, cassava, tapioca and chestnuts; milk and milk products; meat, fish; eggs; vegetable oils; vegetables and fruits. In addition, there is a wide range of processed foods (including bread, pasta and biscuits), which are delivered specifically for the nutritional needs of patients with celiac disease. These foods can be found by the label, which is a cross-sour wheat stem, guaranteeing the absence of gluten. (Http://

Some foods are specially produced, prepared and / or processed to reduce the gluten content of one or more gluten-containing ingredients or replace gluten-containing ingredients with other ingredients, that are naturally gluten-free . Other foods are made ​​exclusively from ingredients that are gluten-free .

The removal of gluten from gluten-containing grains presents considerable technical difficulties and economic constraints and therefore the manufacture of totally gluten-free foods using these grains is difficult. Therefore, many foods, especially those processed to reduce gluten, may contain small residual amounts of gluten.

Table 1 – Fermented alcoholic and soft drinks from sorghum, millet and other (Zarnkov, 2014)

Beverage Source of starch Microorganisms Country
Boza Wheat, millet, corn S. cerevisiae, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc Bulgaria, Turkey, Romania, Albania
Hirsebier (millet beer), Krieger Bräu, Riedenburg Millet, agave   S. pasteurianus Germany
mahewu Corn, millet, sorghum L. delbrueckii, L. bulgaricus, S. cerevisiae South Africa
Red bridge Sorghum S. cerevisiae USA
Kaffir beer Maize, Kaffir Yeast, Lactobacillus South Africa


Certified methods for measuring the gluten content are:

Ridascreen Gliadin competitive R7021 (competitive ELISA) with a limit of detection 1.36 ppm gliadin or 2.72 ppm gluten; limit of quantification 5 g / kg gliadin ppm or 10 ppm gluten;

Ridascreen Gliadin R7001 R7021 (sandwich ELISA) with a limit of detection 1.5 ppm gliadin or 3 ppm gluten; limit of quantification 2,5 mg / kg ppm gliadin or 5 ppm gluten (Zarnkow, 2014 ).



Table 2 – Gluten content in different samples of cereals:

Sample Gluten mg/kg
millet 24.3
chickpeas 16.0
rice 14.5
Mix rice + millet + chickpeas 14.8
Corn meal – Greek 36.6
Littlespelt – vintage 2014 271.5
Malt littlespelt – vintage 2014 208.8
Littlespelt – vintage2015 321.8
Biolittlespelt – vintage 2015 325.5

Littlespelt from Chirpan – vintage 2014


Littlespelt – flour without bran 120.5
Littlespelt – the fine flour filter 51.0
Littlespelt – wholegrain flour 125.7
Malt 11P 199.3
Malt 31 Ч Over 400
Barley – BS ISO 7495:2003;

ISO 21415-2:2006 – method of washing

12 000

(12% wet gluten)