The role of dietary components for maintaining good health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases are well known and scientifically approved. As a result, several health claims for foods and food components, including cereal-based products are allowed in the regulations on food labeling by the US Administration Food and Drug Administration (Abdel, 2002).
Besides the health benefits associated with consumption of whole grain, cereals are also recognized sources of bioactive components of health promotion, such as fiber, phenols, tocopherols and carotenoids. The study of cereals genotypes with high content of these ingredients, should be of interest to producers, grain processors and consumers.
Lutein is the main yellow pigment in wheat. Triticum monococcum L. contains high levels of proteins and yellow pigments (Abdel, 2002). The acceptance of lutein is associated with a reduced incidence of age-related macular degeneration, a major cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly and cataracts.
Einkorn is extremely rich in vitamins A, C and E, proteins and minerals (zinc, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus). Vitamin E plays a protective role in the cardiovascular system, helps gonadal function, and is also relatively good antioxidant – contributes to the rapid removal by the body of free radicals.
Minerals contribute to the normal physiological condition of the body. Scientific studies have shown that the zinc content in einkorn produced in Bulgaria, is several times greater than that produced in other countries. The high content of magnesium makes einkorn extremely useful food for sportsmen people and especially those who suffer from muscle cramps and strains.
Except for substitute of modern wheats in the daily diet, einkorn is indispensable for people suffering from celiac disease. Celiac disease is a condition which does not absorb a specific protein (gluten) contained in the grain, so that instead of having a nutritional value, the latter is converted into a source of intoxication of the organism. The protein composing einkorn grain – gliadin, proves toxic for people suffering from celiac. To them, the einkorn gives hope for delicious food and a normal, healthy life. This should be verified with more studies for a long period.
Recently, einkorn represents interest mainly for archaeologists. Einkorn is one of the oldest foods of mankind. It is a cereal from Poaceae family, genus Triticum, with species name Triticum monococcum, according bionominal classification K. Linnaeus. Lately, together with the desire of people to eat right and have a healthy live, the interest in einkorn is reborn to take its place on our table, which he deserve it by virtue . Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the benefits of including various grains, a large part of their diets. Increased consumption of cereals, should direct users to search for bread and products made from cereals, other than ordinary varieties of wheat.
One of the most attractive aspects of alternative crops is the consideration that food from einkorn products (triticum monococcum and triticum dicoccon), spelt and khorasan wheat (triticum turanicum) are relatively hypoallergenic, compared to foods produced by other forms of wheat. People who suffer from allergic reactions to certain common bakery products, indicate that these reactions are absent in consumption of einkorn and other products. The results of the research show that the gliadin fraction of the wheat gluten may be responsible for allergic reactions (Auricchio et al., 1982, 1985). Differences in protein gliadins in wheat bread from other bread are known (Federmann et al., 1992; Hucl et al., 1995). However, the factors that are responsible for changes in allergic reactions remain unknown. Recent studies show that hard flour can be offered as an alternative to individuals with allergies to common wheat flour (Boyacioglu and D ‘Appolonia, 1994a, b).
In revaluation of the quality of einkorn was found, that this ancient wheat has some nutritional advantages over polyploid wheats. Einkorn is rich in proteins, lipids (mostly unsaturated fatty acids), fructans and trace elements (including zinc and iron). Increased concentrations of several antioxidant compounds (carotenoids conjugated polyphenols and phytosterols) and a low content of β-amylase and lipoxygenase (which limit the degradation of the antioxidants during the processing of foodstuffs), contribute to the excellent nutritional properties of the flour, which is superior to those of other wheats.
Making of einkorn bread is hampered by low gluten content, which aggravates fermentation. Kneaded dough has low shape stability and low elasticity. For improving the quality of dough in mixes were added hydrocolloids, such as sodium alginate, xanthan gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Hydrocolloids are hydrophilic polymers that generally contain many hydroxyl groups and may be polyelectrolytes. They improve the stability of the dough, shape stability and the bread was prepared with a higher specific volume. Upon addition of guar gum, pectin, xanthan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was prepared bread with a softer crumb and were observed slow rescission of bread. (Davidou et al., 1996; Rojas et al., 1999; Collar et al., 2001) .
Due to the increased interest in the functional foods einkorn can still play an important role in human nutrition, particularly in the development of new or special foods with high nutritional quality. According Hidalgo et al. (2014).
Einkorn has the following advantages over modern wheat:
- Studies have found that einkorn can be non-toxic for people intolerant to gluten.
- Einkorn has 14 chromosomes, while modern wheats having 42, which is more favorable for the digestive system.
- Einkorn contains from 3 to 4 times more beta-carotene from wheat. Beta-carotene increases immunity, helps prevent cancer and heart disease.
- Einkorn contains two times more vitamin A than modern wheat, which positively influences the reproductive organs on eye health and protect against certain cancers.
- Einkorn contains from 3 to 4 times more lutein than modern wheats – serves for prevention against macular degeneration and cataracts of the eyes.
- Einkorn contains 4-5 times more riboflavin than modern wheats, which are used by the body to create energy and is an antioxidant that slows down aging.
- The scales can protect grain against chemical pollution and insects, making pozhodyashto organic farming
In addition to bread, einkorn can be used in the manufacture of beer and beverages. Since ancient times remained the notion that “Beer